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What types of cosmetic surgeries are there?

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Below is a list of the most common cosmetic surgeries, if you think about having one I recommend you 'The Cosmetic Surgery Clinic' in the U.K.

Tummy tuck (abdominoplasty) - the abdomen is reshaped and firmed. During this surgical procedure excess skin and fact is removed from the middle and lower abdomen, with the aim of tightening the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall. Tummy tucks are more popular among women after pregnancy and people who have lost a great deal of weight and do not like the sagging that sometimes results from this. Sometimes the sagging skin occurs for genetic reasons (the patient inherited the trait). This procedure may also improve the appearance of stretch marks, especially those located below the navel.It is important that malnutrition is identified among patients who have lost a lot of weight. Identifying malnutrition before surgery in massive weight loss patients seeking body contouring will significantly decrease surgical complications, accelerate wound healing, improve scar quality and boost patient energy levels, this study found.

Eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) - the eyelids are reshaped, or a permanent eyeliner is applied. This procedure may be either functional or cosmetic, and sometimes both. The aim is to reshape the upper or lower eyelid by removing or repositioning excess tissue. It may also involve reinforcing surrounding muscles and tendons.

Mammoplasty, this may include:

Breast enlargement (breast augmentation; boob job) - the breasts are enlarged. This is one of the most common procedures in cosmetic surgery. This is done either with fat grafting, or with saline or silicone gel prosthetics. Usually carried out because the woman feels her breasts are too small (micromastia), but also if one breast is larger than the other, or if the breasts have changed after pregnancy and/or breastfeeding.

Breast implants may also be considered by patients who have had their breast removed (mastectomy), as may be the case with breast cancer. Breast implants come in many sizes, shapes and profiles.

Women who undergo breast enlargement often see a sizable boost in self-esteem and positive feelings about their sexuality, this researcher from the University of Florida found.

Breast reduction - skin and glandular tissue is removed to make the breasts smaller. This procedure may also apply for women who suffer from shoulder or back pain because their breasts are very/too large (gigantomastia). Breast reduction surgery has a much higher percentage of patients who want to relieve a physical discomfort, compared to women who want breast augmentation. This article looks at whether young women undergoing cosmetic breast reduction surgery should be screened for cancer without their informed consent, which is currently what happens. Breast reduction reduces breast cancer risk among high-risk women, this study found.

Male breast reduction (gynecomastia) - The procedure can also be carried out on men who have abnormally large mammary glands. This condition is much more common than people think - it affects approximately 40% to 60% of the male populations of North American and Western Europe (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery). This article reveals a figure of 40% to 50% of males, at some point in their lives. Some males may have just one affected breast, while others have both. In most cases we are not sure why some men have enlarged breasts. We do know that the following factors may have an impact: taking anabolic steroids, medication containing estrogen, alcohol consumption, marijuana consumption, impaired liver function, and some cancers.

Mastopexy (breast lift) - as the skin loses its elasticity, gravity starts taking its toll, plus other factors such as weight loss, pregnancy and/or breastfeeding alter the shape and firmness of the breasts, some women want a breast lift. The breast lift raises the breasts, giving them a more youthful contour. Sometimes the patient will undergo breast augmentation at the same time.

Lower-body lift - this may include:

Buttock augmentation - this procedure enhances the appearance of the buttocks by making them larger. The surgeon will either graft fat from another part of the patient's body, or use a silicone implant.

Buttock lift - this procedure lifts the buttocks so that they stick out more and have a tighter, more pert appearance. The surgeon does not always need to place implants. A scarless technique can be used for buttock lift.

May also include procedures to tighten loose, sagging skin in the backs of the thighs, hips, outer thighs, and the front of the thighs. The surgeon will usually utilize incisions which go from the back round the hips to the front of the thighs. The surgeon removes the loose skin as well as some underlying fat tissue so that the remaining skin can stretch and smooth the lower body - especially the thighs and buttocks.

Chemical peel - popular among people with acne or pock, as well as those with scars and wrinkles. The procedure involves using Phenol (carbolic acid), TCA (trichloroacetic acid), AHA (glycolic acid) or BHA (salicylic acid) as the active ingredient. There are two types of chemical peel:

Deep (phenol) peel - also known as a deep chemical peel. This is for patients with deep wrinkles, usually from exposure to the sun, as well as the skin that wrinkles around the lips and chin. This treatment reduces the appearance of skin damage and imperfections.

Light to medium chemical peel - more suitable for patients with finely wrinkled faces, as well as sun-damaged skin, and uneven pigmentation. All chemical peels peel away the top layers of the skin.

Researchers at the Saint Louis University School of Medicine found that chemical peels using either alpha-hydroxy acid or beta-hydroxy acid are both highly effective in treating mild to moderately severe facial acne.

Labiaplasty - also called labioplasty, labia minor reduction, or labial reduction. This involves surgery of the labia majora or labia minora of the vulva (part of the female genitalia). Labiaplasty reduces elongated labia. This is generally part of a vaginoplasty. However, this article explains that there exists little clinical or scientific evidence to guide gynecological surgeons as to the safety and effectiveness of different cosmetic vaginal procedures.

Nose job (rhinoplasty) - the surgeon reshapes the patient's nose. It is usually done by an otolaryngologist (head and neck surgeon, ear/nose and throat specialist), maxillofacial surgeon or plastic surgeon. The aim is to improve the appearance of the nose, and sometimes its function as well if the patient has breathing problems. Surgeon's say patients should wait until they are at least 15 years of age (boys perhaps even older). Sometimes rhinoplasty is carried out in conjunction with a facelift. This study found a higher rate of personality disorders among nose job candidates.

Ear surgery (otoplasty) - generally this involves pining the ear closer to the head. However, surgery may involve reducing the size of very large ears, or reshaping various bends in the cartilage. Most commonly, otoplasty is used for patients with:

Protruding ears (ears that stick out)

Large ears

Ears that have an abnormal shape

Some patients have surgery done on just one ear, while others have both ears done. Ear surgery can be performed on children because the ears reach their near total development when the child is 5 or 6. A study revealed that cosmetic ear surgery has the youngest age of patients. Cosmetic surgical procedures for children pose ethical dilemmas, this essay discusses.

Facelift (rhytidectomy) - rhytidectomy means to remove wrinkles surgically. The aim is to make the patient's face look younger. Excess facial skin is removed without tightening underlying tissue - the skin is then redraped on the patient's face and/or neck. Face lifts may be done in many ways, however, the most popular one is to make an incision in front of the ear which extends into the hairline and also curves around the bottom of the ear and then behind it. The skin is then separated from the deeper tissues with a scalpel or scissors over the cheeks and neck. The deeper tissues are then tightened with sutures (stitches) - sometimes the excess deeper tissues are removed. The skin is then redraped and some excess skin is removed. The incisions are then sutured or stapled. Facelift procedures are continuously evolving.

This interesting study looked at the surprising high rate of MRSA infections following facelift surgery.

Liposuction (suction-assisted lipectomy) - also known as fat modeling, liposculpture suction lipectomy, or lipo. Fat is surgically removed from various parts of the body - usually the abdomen, thighs, buttocks, hips, backs of the arms, and neck. Liposuction may also be used for male breast reduction. It is crucial for the patient to be told that liposuction is not a weight loss method.

If there is a lot of fat, the surgeon cannot remove it all in one go. How much fat is removed depends on what method is being used, as well as certain aspects relating to the patient - usually the most that can be taken out is about 5 kg (a little over 10 lbs). If too much fat is removed there is a significantly greater risk of complications for the patient.

The fat is removed via a cannula (a hollow metal tube) that is passed through the fatty tissue. A pump is attached, generating a vacuum, so that the fat is literally sucked out (suction assisted liposuction). A motor may be attached which makes the cannula vibrate (vacillate back and forth). An ultrasonic generator may also be used - this produces sound waves that break the fat cells which are then removed. Prior to removal the fat cells may also be broken down with laser.

Although complications are uncommon, they can occur, including the accumulation of blood under the skin (hematoma), infection, changes in sensation, allergic reactions, damage to underling structures, and unsatisfactory results. It is important that the patient is aware of the risks and has talked about them with a doctor.

Smokers are advised to give up well in advance of the operation and not to resume for at a least a few weeks afterwards. Smoking can significantly undermine recovery.

Liposuction does not reduce the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (high blood pressure), this study revealed.

Brow lift - also known as a browplasty or forehead lift. The aim is to raise drooping eyebrows and/or remove forehead wrinkles (worry lines) - conditions associated with aging. It is often performed in conjunction with other cosmetic procedures aimed at achieving a more harmonious facial appearance.

Chin augmentation - the aim is usually to give the patient a more prominent chin and a better balance of facial features. An implant is usually placed by the surgeon. Often when the patient has a nose job (rhinoplasty) he/she will include chin augmentation surgery in the same session. Sometimes the surgeon is able to manipulate the jaw bone (without using a prosthetic implant). However, chin augmentation with implants is the more popular option for patients with normally functioning teeth and jaw development.

Cheek augmentation - this surgical procedure is aimed at giving the patient more prominent cheekbones. The surgeon may place an implant at the top of the cheekbones. Many patients say that weak cheeks make their face seem gaunt and aged. As we age our cheeks may lose their fullness.

Cheek lift - also known as a midface lift. This surgical procedure raises the middle of the face (the cheek) to improve cheek and under-eye fullness and contour.

Hair transplantation - A large percentage of men, especially Caucasian men, and a smaller percentage of women are affected by hair loss. Most hair loss occurs for genetic reasons. Micro-hair transplantation has replaced larger grafts of hair. Patients may require several sessions to achieve desired results. After six weeks the transplanted hair will fall out and be replaced about three months later when the new hair appears. This article explains how a dermatologist can help patients suffering from hair loss.

Collagen injections - collagen is widely used in cosmetic and plastic surgery for burn patients and for the reconstruction of bone. It is also widely used in dentistry, orthopedics and other surgeries. Collagen injections are also used in treating patients with urinary incontinence. One of the drawbacks is that some patients experience prolonged redness. Doctors can carry out a patch test before surgery to find out how susceptible the patient might be. Most collagen comes from young beef cattle - they are free of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy - mad cow disease). Collagen may also be derived from pig tissue.

These treatments are dermal fillers used in cosmetic medicine to reduce wrinkles, lines and scars, as well as to augment soft tissue contours. Collagen treatments are not permanent - they are degraded by the body and have to be repeated at later date.

Fat injections - also called fat grafting, and has broad applications in cosmetic surgery. The patient's own fat is collected from one part of the body and injected into areas requiring volume-enhancement. The results are generally safe and long lasting. Patients are generally more satisfied with this procedure because often two birds are killed with one stone - fat is removed from a part of the body that needs fat reduction, and then added to another part that requires more volume. When the fat is removed it is washed and purified and then carefully re-injected with specially designed needles. Sometimes the procedure needs to be repeated several times for best results.

The hands, face (including lips), and depressions in the skin contour are the most common targets for skin grafting. Rejuvenating newly identified fat compartments in the facial cheeks can help reduce the hollowed look of the face as it ages, according to research by plastic surgeons at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

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